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Ulfberht: unique swords with the inscription +VLFBERHT+ on the blade, dated between the 9th and 11th centuries. In the Viking Age, the privilege of having such a sword belonged exclusively to the elite, because an Ulfberht sword’s unmatched strength could only be had at a high cost. The sharpness and durability of the blade made it possible to cut through bone or a lower-quality weapon with one blow.
The technology for making such swords was hundreds of years ahead of its time. The uniqueness of the Ulfberht was the use of crucible steel with a high carbon content, up to 1.2%.
Crucible steel was produced in India, Sri Lanka from about 300 BC, and later in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and other Central Asian areas. Scientists analyzing the steel concluded that authentic Ulfberht swords originated in India.