O1 steel was developed in 1905 by Halcomb steel which was acquired by Crucible Steel a few years later . However, the history is a bit more interesting than that. In 1876 a large Sheffield steel company, Sanderson Brothers, purchased Sweet’s Manufacturing Company’s Geddes Steel Works in Syracuse New York. American tariffs had led to a large reduction in exported steel from Sheffield, and steel output from the USA had also greatly increased to match. So several English steel companies setup production facilities in the US, including Sanderson Brothers. Sanderson Brothers was a very old Sheffield steel company, founded in 1776. Tool Steel development began to explode starting in about 1900 due to the recent discovery of “high speed steel” which you can read about here: The History of the First Tool Steel. The year 1900 was doubly significant because in that year there was a major consolidation of 13 of the major steel plants which used “crucible” steel production methods, accounting for 95% of the crucible steel production in the United States.
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